Leaves: deciduous, simple, alternate; blades triangularly ovate, bases truncated or angularly wedge-shaped.
Flowers: tiny monoecious flowers arranged on catkins. Male catkins ~1.5″ long, elongate and drooping, occur in clusters at the end of twigs. Brown in color as opposed to the female’s green catkins. Female catkins are shorter, ~0.5″ long, cylindrical and upright.
Bark: exfoliating bark, ranging in color from reddish-brown, to cinnamon, to grey, is a highly distinguishing feature of Betula nigra, aiding in identification year round.